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US domestic aviation emissions could increase 33-50% by 2030 as a result of Trump climate withdrawal | MMU CATE,David Lee
US domestic aviation emissions could increase 33-50% by 2030 as a result of Trump climate withdrawal
Tue 27 Jun 2017 - Although there has been recent speculation over the possibility of the United States not joining the voluntary phase of ICAO's CORSIA carbon offsetting scheme as a result of President Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement, there are other implications for global aviation emissions. Pledges made by countries under the agreement must take into account reductions in domestic aviation emissions, which are not covered by CORSIA. Globally, domestic aviation emissions make up around 38 per cent of all aviation emissions, with the US responsible for nearly a half. According to research by Manchester Metropolitan University's Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment (CATE), US domestic aviation emissions could rise by 33 to 50 per cent over 2005 levels if the US does not carry out its CO2 reduction plans and so heavily impact the sector's overall emissions. Read more ...

Virgin Atlantic sees impressive gains in fuel efficiency and an 8% fall in emissions as a result of fleet changes | Virgin Atlantic,LanzaTech
Virgin Atlantic sees impressive gains in fuel efficiency and an 8% fall in emissions as a result of fleet changes
Tue 27 Jun 2017 - Following a slowdown in the overall fuel efficiency of its fleet in 2015, Virgin Atlantic Airways has rebounded with an impressive 8 per cent annual improvement last year, according to the airline's latest Sustainability Report 2017. This is largely down to the positive impact of Boeing 787 aircraft entering the fleet in 2016, improved passenger load factors and other operational gains. Total CO2e aircraft emissions fell from 4.43 million tonnes in 2015 to 4.08 million tonnes in 2016, from a high of 5.22 million tonnes in 2007 when Virgin Atlantic set a target to reduce CO2 emissions by 30 per cent per revenue tonne-kilometre (RTK) by 2020. The 22 per cent reduction since 2007 is matched by a 17 per cent fall in CO2 per RTK and a 22 per cent drop in CO2 per passenger km over the past 10 years. This, says the airline, puts it well ahead of the industry's annual fuel efficiency improvement target for the period up to 2020. Read more ...

UK airspace improvements help NATS reduce carbon emissions but more modernisation required, it warns | NATS
UK airspace improvements help NATS reduce carbon emissions but more modernisation required, it warns
Fri 23 Jun 2017 - Air navigation service provider (ANSP) NATS reports that improvements to the design of UK airspace helped save 55,900 tonnes of CO2 in 2016, worth £6.2 million ($8m) in fuel savings for airlines. In 2008, NATS became the first ANSP in the world to set an airspace environmental target and says it is currently tracking at a 5 per cent improvement on a goal to reduce air traffic management (ATM) related CO2 emissions by 10 per cent by 2020. However, warns NATS, it will become more difficult to achieve this unless further efficiencies can be delivered by modernising UK airspace. CO2 savings in the previous year were 157,000 tonnes. In its annual Responsible Business report, NATS says its campaign to increase the use of continuous descent approach (CDA) procedures by aircraft landing at UK airports resulted in an additional 32,070 quieter arrivals in 2016 over 2015. Read more ...

EU States back proposals on extending Aviation EU ETS 'stop-the-clock' and provisions for CORSIA review | Stop-the-clock,Julie Girling
EU States back proposals on extending Aviation EU ETS 'stop-the-clock' and provisions for CORSIA review
Thu 22 Jun 2017 - EU Member States have agreed a common negotiating position ahead of talks with the European Parliament (EP) on existing regulations concerning the Aviation EU ETS and its post-2020 future when the global CORSIA market-based scheme starts. The Council, which represents the States, says it broadly supports European Commission proposals, including to extend the derogation - known as 'stop-the-clock' - for extra-EEA flights until the end of the current phase of the EU ETS in 2020. This is also supported by most EP members but as the derogation ceased to exist at the end of 2016, swift action will need to be taken to adopt a revision by the end of this year to avoid a legal gap. The two institutions must also agree on future steps to be taken in the light of decisions still to be reached at ICAO on the global scheme. A report has already been submitted by EP rapporteur Julie Girling, along with proposed amendments by members of the EP environment committee (ENVI), with a vote scheduled for July 11 and a EP plenary vote in the autumn. Read more ...

Heathrow adds emissions along with noise metrics to its airline performance league table | Heathrow,Fly Quiet,Etihad Airways
Heathrow adds emissions along with noise metrics to its airline performance league table
Wed 21 Jun 2017 - Heathrow Airport has extended its quarterly 'Fly Quiet League Table' to include for the first time the emissions performance as well as the noise performance of airlines serving the airport. The 50 busiest airlines at Heathrow are now publicly ranked on their efforts to reduce emissions from the aircraft they use for operations at the airport. A new metric has also been introduced that takes into account unscheduled night flights operating between 11.30pm and 4.30am. The league table has tracked airline noise performance since 2013 and is credited with incentivising airlines to use their quieter aircraft types and operating procedures at Heathrow. Based on data from January to March, British Airways short-haul, Aer Lingus and Etihad Airways were judged to be the cleanest and quietest fleets at the airport. Read more ...

European airport sector raises its ambition by doubling earlier pledge on carbon neutrality | Airport Carbon Accreditation,ACI Europe
European airport sector raises its ambition by doubling earlier pledge on carbon neutrality
Wed 14 Jun 2017 - The European airport sector has agreed to double the number of carbon-neutral airports from an original target of 50 airports by 2030 to 100. Currently, 27 airports have reached this status and at their industry's annual congress that started today, a further 26 airports in the region announced their commitment to join them. The European airport association ACI Europe first launched its Airport Carbon Accreditation programme in 2009 and since then 116 European airports have been certified at one of the four levels, with carbon neutrality the highest. The programme has now been rolled out globally across all ACI regions with 190 airports now taking part. ACI Europe also reported at its meeting the CO2 reductions for the past year from participants and announced Munich Airport had been adjudicated by the programme's independent advisory board as this year’s winner of its Eco-Innovation Award. Read more ...

Wildlife traffickers continue to profit from vulnerabilities in the global air transportation system, finds report | ROUTES,United for Wildlife,CITES
Wildlife traffickers continue to profit from vulnerabilities in the global air transportation system, finds report
Tue 13 Jun 2017 - Illegal wildlife trafficking - the fourth largest black market in the world and worth over $20 billion annually to criminal organisations - is now widespread at airports across 114 countries, finds a report published on behalf of ROUTES, a partnership of US government agencies and representatives from transportation and conservation organisations formed to combat the practice. The high profits and low risk associated with trafficking through airports have attracted sophisticated criminal networks able to exploit the security vulnerabilities in the global air transportation system and the corruption at some airports. A ROUTES partner, IATA has become actively involved in the war against trafficking and at last weeks AGM in Cancun, 12 more airlines joined the 27 others that have signed a declaration committing the industry to tackling the illegal trade. IATA also signed an extension agreement with airports body ACI to work more closely together on the issue. Read more ...

High potential in North America for low-carbon jet fuels but unlikely to make impact on ICAO emissions goal | ICCT
High potential in North America for low-carbon jet fuels but unlikely to make impact on ICAO emissions goal
Mon 12 Jun 2017 - North America has a higher potential for the production of sustainable alternative jet fuels than other regions of the world because of its available resources but it is unlikely that switching to low-carbon fuels alone can make the necessary reductions in carbon emissions projected by ICAO to ensure the carbon-neutral growth goal after 2020, concludes a US study. Due to the high expense of alternative fuels relative to the projected low costs of offsets under the ICAO CORSIA scheme that starts in 2021 and the delayed transition from collective to individual offset responsibility, the incentive to switch is greatly reduced for an airline, particularly in the early years. The study by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) says robust policy support will therefore be needed to spur alternative fuel deployment at the scale needed to make a substantial contribution to CORSIA commitments. Read more ...

ICAO and airlines reinforce support for CORSIA following US decision to quit Paris climate agreement | ICAO CORSIA
ICAO and airlines reinforce support for CORSIA following US decision to quit Paris climate agreement
Thu 8 Jun 2017 - ICAO and the airline industry have moved to dampen fears that the Trump administration's decision to pull the United States out of the Paris Climate Agreement could damage the global CORSIA CO2 scheme. During a keynote address on Monday to the IATA Annual General Meeting in Cancun, Mexico, ICAO Council President Dr Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu said the scheme was on track and any concerns over "recent developments" should be dispelled. IATA Director General Alexandre de Juniac described the US withdrawal as "disappointing" but said it was not a setback for CORSIA as the the two agreements were "completely separate". US airline trade body Airlines for America (A4A) said its members remained committed to both the CORSIA and ICAO aircraft CO2 standard agreements. The IATA AGM also passed a resolution calling for governments to adopt policies in support of sustainable aviation fuel deployment. Read more ...

Bombardier and Swedavia take sustainable jet fuel deliveries from SkyNRG and AltAir | Bombardier,SkyNRG,AltAir Fuels,Swedavia
Bombardier and Swedavia take sustainable jet fuel deliveries from SkyNRG and AltAir
Thu 1 Jun 2017 - SkyNRG has completed deliveries of sustainable aviation biofuels on behalf of Bombardier Business Aircraft and Swedish airport operator Swedavia. Bombardier's demonstration fleet was refuelled with a biofuel blend at the KLM Jet Center in Amsterdam while en route to the European Business Aviation Convention and Exhibition (EBACE) in Geneva. The biofuel was produced by AltAir Fuels at its California biorefinery and SkyNRG was partnered in the delivery by aviation jet fuel supplier AEG Fuels. AltAir also produced the sustainable fuel supplied by SkyNRG and Air BP to Swedavia at Gothenburg Airport. The airport operator was receiving its first volume in 2017 of the fuel through its partnership with the Fly Green Fund that enables organisations and individuals in the Nordic region to reduce their carbon footprint by flying on sustainable aviation fuel. Read more ...

Lufthansa Cargo picks up environmental responsibility award for fuel-saving data tool | Lufthansa Cargo,Aviaso
Lufthansa Cargo picks up environmental responsibility award for fuel-saving data tool
Thu 1 Jun 2017 - Lufthansa Cargo has received the 2017 DQS German Award for Excellence in the Environmental Responsibility category for its data collection tool OMEGA that provides key information for reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions. It was one of a number of awards made to businesses by global management systems certification body DQS for a commitment to sustainability practices. Developed by aviation software specialist Honeywell Aviaso together with Lufthansa, the Ops Monitor and Efficiency Gap Analyser (OMEGA) uses data collected during cargo flights to make future flights more fuel efficient by comparing projected, actual and optimal values. Pilots can use the analysis to best prepare for a flight and identify any deviations from the plan early on. The cargo carrier has a goal to reduce specific carbon emissions by 25 per cent by 2020 from a 2005 baseline. Read more ...

European airports' carbon neutrality 2030 goal passes half way point as Gatwick and Lyon reach highest level | Lyon-Saint Exupéry Airport, Gatwick Airport
European airports' carbon neutrality 2030 goal passes half way point as Gatwick and Lyon reach highest level
Wed 31 May 2017 - London Gatwick and Lyon-Saint Exupery have become the latest European airports to achieve the highest carbon-neutral level of the industry's Airport Carbon Accreditation programme. This brings the total of carbon neutral airports in Europe to 27, over half way to reaching an industry goal of 50 by 2030, with four other airports in Asia and one in North America also having reached Level 3+ neutrality. Lyon initially entered the programme at the first 'Mapping' level of the programme in 2013 and has since worked its way up through the four levels. To coincide with its announcement of reaching carbon neutrality status, Gatwick has published its 'Decade of Change' report for 2016 which charts progress against 10 environmental and community-focused targets the airport has set itself for the 2010-2020 period. Read more ...

ICAO in race to finalise CORSIA details as it concludes latest global outreach initiative | ICAO CORSIA
ICAO in race to finalise CORSIA details as it concludes latest global outreach initiative
Fri 26 May 2017 - With barely 18 months before all countries with aircraft operators undertaking international flights are required to start monitoring carbon emissions, ICAO faces a major challenge in finalising the important standards that will underpin its global CORSIA carbon offsetting scheme. While 69 States have so far agreed to participate from the beginning of the pilot phase in 2021, many more will be affected by the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) requirements of the scheme. However, the ICAO leadership is confident that the draft standards are on course to be formally adopted in a year's time, although concedes additional resources will be needed for the development and implementation of the scheme. The UN agency's environment chief, Jane Hupe, told a recent seminar in Montreal that CORSIA should not be seen as a 'carte blanche' which allowed the sector to increase its emissions unchecked and the aim was to do everything possible to reduce aviation's climate impact. Read more ...

New technology and operational efficiencies help easyJet reduce emissions below 80 grams per passenger/km | easyJet
New technology and operational efficiencies help easyJet reduce emissions below 80 grams per passenger/km
Tue 23 May 2017 - Fuel efficiency gains at Europe's second-largest airline easyJet have resulted in carbon emissions per passenger kilometre falling below 80 grams for the first time and are on track to be reduced by a third in 20 years, it says. The low-cost carrier attributes the milestone to improving technology and a continued long-term focus on reducing weight and improving operating efficiency. Since it began reporting on carbon emissions in 2000, easyJet's emissions have reduced from 116.2 grams to 79.98 grams - a reduction of 31 per cent. It is now targeting a further reduction to around 77 grams by 2020 as new Airbus A320neo aircraft join the fleet.  Read more ...

Hawaiian celebrates "100 Percent Day" as it passes milestone to reduce APU usage | Hawaiian Airlines
Hawaiian celebrates "100 Percent Day" as it passes milestone to reduce APU usage
Tue 23 May 2017 - Hawaiian Airlines has achieved a key fuel and carbon emissions objective of having all its wide-body aircraft arriving at airports on a single day to be connected with electrical power at the gate. In the past year, the carrier has been working towards a goal of having gate power available to its entire wide-body fleet within three minutes of arrival as aircraft fly between Hawaii, 11 US cities and 10 international destinations. Through significantly reducing usage of onboard auxiliary power units (APUs) by an estimated 30 minutes a flight, Hawaiian estimates it could save around 620,000 gallons of fuel annually and cut CO2 emissions by 5,933 tonnes - roughly enough fuel to fly the airline's wide-body fleet for a day. Read more ...

JetBlue's carbon emissions show 8 per cent growth last year but improvement in fuel efficiency performance | JetBlue
JetBlue's carbon emissions show 8 per cent growth last year but improvement in fuel efficiency performance
Fri 5 May 2017 - Carbon emissions from operations by US carrier JetBlue amounted to just under 7.5 million tonnes in 2016, an increasing of 8.4 per cent compared to the previous year as a result of higher passenger volume that saw revenue passenger miles rise by 9.3 per cent. Also contributing to the emissions increase, says JetBlue in its latest annual sustainability report, was a change in physical operating conditions as a result of congested airspace in the Northeast region of the United States causing increased fuel burn from occasional longer taxi times at airports. While emissions increased overall, however, the airline says its greenhouse gas intensity decreased by 0.62 per cent on the previous year and 4.9 per cent since its 2008 baseline reporting year. To meet CO2 reduction targets, JetBlue has set goals to save 500,000 gallons of fuel burn per year through enhanced technology, integrating biofuel into all flight operations and transitioning its airport ground equipment to all-electric where feasible. (Updated 15 MayRead more ...

Singapore Airlines aims to adopt regular usage of sustainable fuels as it starts first in a series of biofuel flights | ASPIRE,Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines aims to adopt regular usage of sustainable fuels as it starts first in a series of biofuel flights
Wed 3 May 2017 - Singapore Airlines has undertaken its first sustainable biofuel flight as part of a series of 12 'green package' flights over a three-month period on the non-stop San Francisco to Singapore route. Operating its latest-generation and most fuel-efficient aircraft - the Airbus A350-900 - the airline claims the series of flights are the first in the world to combine the use of biofuels, fuel-efficient aircraft and optimised flight operations. The biofuel for the SQ31 flight is produced by AltAir Fuels from used cooking oil and supplied by SkyNRG in cooperation with North American Fuel Corporation (NAFCO), a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Aviation Oil (Singapore) and EPIC Fuels. The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) is facilitating the use of the optimised flight operations and air traffic management (ATM) best practices to reduce the fuel burn and carbon emissions from the flights. Read more ...

LAX and Gatwick step up recycling efforts with initiatives to turn airport waste into energy | Los Angeles International Airport,Gatwick Airport,recycling
LAX and Gatwick step up recycling efforts with initiatives to turn airport waste into energy
Tue 2 May 2017 - Los Angeles International (LAX) and London Gatwick airports have started recycling initiatives to turn waste into either natural gas fuel or onsite energy use. In partnership with the Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation (LASAN), LAX is beginning a 90-day pilot programme involving the collection of food waste from a targeted sample of airports restaurants and concessionaires, which will then be transported offsite for conversion into natural gas using an anaerobic digestion process. Solid and liquid organic waste that cannot be converted into methane gas will be converted into commercial-grade fertiliser. Gatwick Airport and DHL Supply Chain, meanwhile, have opened a new waste management plant, which they claim makes the airport the first in the world to turn both food and packaging waste into energy onsite. Read more ...

JetBlue and Boeing see exciting future in passenger hybrid-electric aircraft and invest in start-up Zunum | Zunum Aero,Wright Electric,Airbus E-Fan,Boeing HorizonX
JetBlue and Boeing see exciting future in passenger hybrid-electric aircraft and invest in start-up Zunum
Fri 28 Apr 2017 - US carrier JetBlue and Boeing are to back start-up Zunum Aero, which is developing regional hybrid-electric aircraft that could be flying as early as the 2020s. Hybrid aircraft could revolutionise the regional airline market, say the partners, by bringing about cheaper, faster and more environmentally-friendly air travel between regional airports. Both Boeing and Airbus are already working on the concept themselves but the technology breakthrough is dependent on major advances in battery power, as well as aircraft and engine design. Initially, Zunum is planning a small capacity aircraft with a range of 700 miles but by 2030 it expects to be producing aircraft accommodating up to 50 passengers and capable of flying over 1,000 miles. Another US start-up, Wright Electric, also has ambitions to come up with an electric passenger aircraft within the next 10 years and is being supported by UK budget airline easyJet. Read more ...
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ACI Asia-Pacific recognises airports in the region for their environmental and carbon reduction achievements | ACI Asia-Pacific,Green Airport Recognition
ACI Asia-Pacific recognises airports in the region for their environmental and carbon reduction achievements
Fri 28 Apr 2017 - The inaugural annual Green Airports Recognitions were presented during this year's ACI Asia-Pacific Regional Assembly held recently in Doha, Qatar, with Platinum recognitions going to Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) and Darwin International Airport. ACI Asia-Pacific stresses these are not competitive awards but are recognition of environmental projects undertaken by airports large and small in the region. The objective is to promote environmental best practice and recognise outstanding accomplishments. Understanding that different airports have different environmental priorities, each year a specific environmental aspect will be chosen as the recognition theme. This year's theme was energy management. Also during the Assembly, 11 airports in the region were presented with their Airport Carbon Accreditation certificates to recognise their initiatives and achievements in carbon reduction. Read more ...

Air Canada and NRC start research into biofuel impact on contrail formation from commercial flight operations | Air Canada,NRC
Air Canada and NRC start research into biofuel impact on contrail formation from commercial flight operations
Tue 25 Apr 2017 - Five Air Canada biofuel-powered flights between Montreal and Toronto over the coming days will be trailed by a National Research Council of Canada (NRC) T-33 research jet using advanced sensing equipment to sample and test the contrail biofuel emissions from each aircraft. It is part of the Civil Aviation Alternative Fuel Contrail and Emissions Research (CAAFCER) project led by NRC that is studying the environmental benefits of biofuel use on contrails. Depending on suitable weather conditions required for the testing, the first of the flights could take place today. The sustainable biofuel has been produced by AltAir Fuels from used cooking oil and supplied by SkyNRG. NRC has already taken part in extensive trials of a NASA-led project in the United States to measure the impact of alternative fuels on contrails, details of which were recently published in the journal Nature. The results showed using biofuels could substantially decrease jet engine exhaust particles and so reduce climate-warming contrails. Read more ...

CORSIA aviation carbon emissions scheme must learn lessons from UN's flawed offset mechanism, says study | Oeko,Stockholm Environment Institute
CORSIA aviation carbon emissions scheme must learn lessons from UN's flawed offset mechanism, says study
Tue 25 Apr 2017 - While ICAO deliberates over rules concerning what offsets should be eligible under its carbon scheme for international aviation, a study prepared for the European Commission concludes the UN's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has fundamental flaws in terms of overall environmental integrity. An offset mechanism established under the Kyoto Protocol to contribute to GHG mitigation, the CDM will end in 2020 - just as the ICAO CORSIA scheme gets underway - and a future design is required under the successor Paris Agreement. The fundamental principle that only real, measurable and additional emission reductions are generated, has not been adequately followed in most of the projects covered by the CDM, finds the study by Oeko-Institut. Lessons should be learned and applied to other crediting mechanisms like CORSIA, it advises. NGOs, meanwhile, say ICAO runs the risk of repeating the mistakes and the aviation sector should not rely on offsetting to address aircraft emissions. Read more ...

Incidents of severe aircraft turbulence likely to multiply as a result of climate change, finds study | Paul Williams,University of Reading,turbulence
Incidents of severe aircraft turbulence likely to multiply as a result of climate change, finds study
Wed 12 Apr 2017 - Incidents of severe aircraft turbulence on transatlantic routes are likely to become twice or even three times more common as a result of climate change, finds a new study from the Department of Meteorology at the University of Reading in the UK. The study used supercomputer simulations of the atmosphere to calculate how wintertime transatlantic clear-air turbulence would change at an aircraft's cruising altitude of around 39,000 feet (12 km) in response to a doubling in the concentration of CO2 levels in the atmosphere, which scientists predict will occur later this century. The results show the average amount of light turbulence increasing by 59 per cent, rising to 149 per cent for severe turbulence. A significant number of injuries to passengers and crew already take place each year, as well as damage to aircraft, and the study concludes an intensification of clear-air turbulence could have important consequences for aviation. Read more ...

Swedish project looks to narrow the emissions reporting gap between estimated and actual flight paths | LFV,Swedish Transport Agency,FOI
Swedish project looks to narrow the emissions reporting gap between estimated and actual flight paths
Tue 11 Apr 2017 - Until now, calculating emissions from aircraft in Sweden has assumed airlines take the straightest and shortest routes, despite this not being the usual case in real-world conditions. A collaboration involving the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), the Swedish Transport Agency and Sweden's air navigation service provider LFV is now trying to narrow the gap between estimated and actual flight paths. The project has involved FOI, a leading defence and security research institute that also studies the environmental impact of aircraft, accessing LFV's radar tracks from 2,200 domestic flights during a few weeks in 2016. By studying the radar tracks, FOI has been able to refine its calculation model and bring down the difference by around 8 per cent. LFV said the outcome could lead to lower fuel consumption and a reduced climate impact from the aviation sector. Read more ...

North American airports recognised for their achievements in environmental leadership | ACI-NA,Miami International Airport,Dallas-Fort Worth International,Indianapolis Airport Authority,Minneapolis-St Paul,Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport
North American airports recognised for their achievements in environmental leadership
Fri 7 Apr 2017 - Miami International Airport, Indianapolis Airport Authority, Minneapolis-St Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission and Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport have been announced as this year's winners of the ACI-NA Environmental Achievement Awards. The four awards by trade association Airports Council International – North America (ACI-NA) recognise outstanding achievement in the categories of Environmental Management; Environmental Mitigation; Outreach, Education and Community Involvement; and Innovative/Special Projects. A runner-up award was made to Detroit Metropolitan Airport. The awards were started in 1997 and winning airports are required to demonstrate the environmental benefit of their project and its innovative approach, effective implementation, applicability and cost-effectiveness. Meanwhile, Dallas Fort Worth has received a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Climate Leadership Award for Organizational Leadership. Read more ...

Seaweed cultivation could provide a promising source of sustainable aviation biofuels, finds Norwegian report | Bellona,Avinor
Seaweed cultivation could provide a promising source of sustainable aviation biofuels, finds Norwegian report
Tue 28 Mar 2017 - Seaweed could become a promising source of biofuels for aviation if sustainably produced and economic and policy challenges can be overcome, says a report by Norwegian NGO Bellona. Seaweeds, or macroalgae, generally contain high amounts of carbohydrates (sugars) that make them highly suitable for bioethanol and biobutanol production, where the sugars are fermented. They belong to the fastest growing species in the world and growth rates far exceed those of terrestrial plants, plus the rapid growth also means they absorb significant amounts of CO2. Most importantly, they do not compete for valuable land space or fresh water during cultivation as do many crops grown for biofuels. Industrial seaweed cultivation, where it is mainly used in food production and pharmaceuticals, is largely confined to Asia whereas in Europe it is in the very early development phase. However, says the report, there is a golden opportunity to design a high-potential sustainable aviation biofuel industry effectively from scratch. Read more ...