GREENAIR NEWSLETTER 28 SEPTEMBER 2020
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Airlines unlikely to require significant amounts of CORSIA offsets for six years, finds Refinitiv analysis
Mon 28 Sept 2020 – Only an unlikely very quick aviation sector recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic in the next three years would create any demand for carbon offsets from airlines in the 2021-2023 pilot phase of ICAO’s CORSIA carbon offsetting scheme, finds a report by market analysts Refinitiv. This follows the ICAO Council decision in late June to amend CORSIA’s baseline to protect the sector from an “inappropriate” financial burden during the recovery. If the Council decides in 2022 to continue with the amended baseline through to the scheme’s conclusion in 2035, offset demand will be close to the level it would have been without the pandemic but only in a very quick recovery scenario. Meanwhile, a study carried out for Brussels-based NGO Transport & Environment concluded the demand for CORSIA offsets will likely be 50% lower than originally expected for the period 2021-2030 as a result of the baseline change.
The Refinitiv analysis updates a previous report it published in June that forecasted demand for CORSIA carbon offsets under various recovery scenarios for the international aviation sector, based on ICAO estimates for seat capacity. In the face of an even worse outcome for the sector caused by the pandemic – international aviation seat capacity decreased by 92% in the second quarter this year – ICAO has updated its recovery scenarios and Refinitiv’s latest study adjusts forecast demand for offsets accordingly. It looks at demand under different post-pandemic scenarios and considers two possibilities for the period 2024 to 2035 – one in which the amended 2019-only baseline continues and one in which the original 2019/2020 average baseline applies – under shaped potential recovery pathways (V, U, L) in line with ICAO’s models.
Assuming the international aviation sector experiences a moderate (U-shaped) recovery, airlines’ collective annual emissions will not exceed those of 2019 until roughly the start of CORSIA’s mandatory phase in 2027. Therefore carriers will not need to buy significant amounts of offsets for at least six years if the baseline remains as it is now, finds Refinitiv.
A relatively quick recovery (V-shaped scenario) makes for some offset demand in the pilot phase (43 Mt over 2021-2030), whereas a long-term stagnation in international air travel (L-shaped) would mean no demand for offsets through the entire timeframe CORSIA is in force (2021-2035). In the moderate U-shaped scenario, airlines would have a cumulative demand for offsets of 558 Mt over the scheme’s lifetime.
The ICAO Council is expected to revisit the baseline change in 2022 but should the decision be to revert back to the original 2019/2020 baseline from 2024 – after the conclusion of the pilot phase – then even the L-shaped scenario features demand for offsets, around 380 Mt cumulatively through 2035. Demand in the U-shaped scenario would be 1.7 billion tonnes over the total scheme and the demand under the V-shaped scenario would be even 40% higher than business-as-usual because of the lower baseline, to reach almost 3 billion tonnes cumulatively by the end of 2035.
Refinitiv analysed the potential outcome if the baseline had not been changed for the pilot phase. It found that applying the same U, L and V scenarios to the original baseline over the pilot phase showed that the need to buy offsets would not be much different under the L-shaped stagnation scenario at all, with no requirement by airlines to buy offsets. Even the moderate U-shaped recovery during this period, airlines would only have to buy 60 Mt, compared to 82 Mt if the pandemic had not happened. Only in the V-shaped scenario, would the need for offsets be higher with the original baseline than if the pandemic had not occurred (217 Mt).
Quoting analysis in March by Ecosystem Marketplace, existing offset supply for CORSIA is around 386 million eligible emission units, with another 183 million units in the development pipeline for the pilot phase, more than enough to satisfy even the highest demand scenario, says Refinitiv.
The study carried by Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems (TAKS) on behalf of T&E estimated that under a U-shaped scenario there will be no offset obligations under CORSIA for the first four years of the scheme (2021-2024). It therefore calls for effective regulation of European aviation emissions through the retention of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) as it would result in earlier reductions of emissions compared to CORSIA, which it argues is important from a climate perspective.
The study updates a previous study carried out in 2019 with CE Delft. It compared two policy scenarios in which the EU ETS was retained for aviation over the period 2021-2030 with one applying CORSIA for European outbound flights and the other for intra-EEA flights as well as outbound. The new study assumes over the period 2021-2024 international aviation gradually recovers and in 2024 aviation emissions are back to the level of 2019. For the period after 2024, the study assumes the annual growth in aviation emissions is in line with the long-term ICAO forecast of 2018.
TAKS has reduced the demand for EU Allowances (EUAs) over the 2021-2030 period from the earlier study and is now computed to 348.9 Mt, down from 418.9 Mt. The reduction in demand will especially take place in the coming years as a result of the effect of Covid-19, it says.
Total costs for European aviation using both scenarios over the 10-year period range between €11.2 billion and €24.1 billion, depending on prices of EU ETS allowances (EUAs and EUAAs) and CORSIA offsets for intra-EEA and outbound flights. T&E estimates CORSIA would add up to 17 euro cents, on average, to the ticket price for long-haul trips outbound from Europe and argues the EU should improve its own carbon market as the EU ETS was a much more effective way of reducing aviation emissions.
Boeing’s 2020 ecoDemonstrator test programme ends with transcontinental flight using 50% blended SAF
Fri 25 Sept 2020 – As part of Boeing’s 2020 ecoDemonstrator programme, a final test flight of an Etihad Airways 787-10 from Seattle to Boeing’s manufacturing site in South Carolina used 50,000 gallons of a 50/50 blend – the maximum blend permitted for commercial aviation – of sustainable and traditional jet fuel. The sustainable fuel, which has been used in lower blends on other test flights conducted during the programme, was produced from inedible agricultural wastes by World Energy and supplied by EPIC Fuels. Boeing and Etihad have had a longstanding collaboration on sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) and were founding partners on a pilot project taking place at Khalifa University near Abu Dhabi to produce jet fuel from saltwater-tolerant plants. Khalifa University has recently hosted a series of webinars focusing on SAF in the UAE.
Mohammad Al Bulooki, Etihad Aviation Group’s COO, said the ecoDemonstrator flight was a “monumental step forward for the sector to prove the viability of producing a 50/50 blend of SAF at a high volume.”
In January, Etihad took delivery of a 787-10 using a fuel mix comprising 30% SAF produced by World Energy. For more than a decade, World Energy and EPIC have produced and supplied SAF to Boeing for flight testing and the aircraft manufacturer offers airlines the option of using SAF for their delivery flights, the first of these being an Etihad 777-300ER in 2012.
“Sustainable aviation fuels are proven and work in airplanes flying today and those that will fly tomorrow, but there’s a very limited supply,” said Sheila Remes, Boeing’s VP Strategy. “World Energy is making commercial-scale volumes of sustainable fuel at competitive prices, leveraging government low-carbon incentives to accelerate production and use in an industry that relies on liquid fuels.”
Created in 2010, the Sustainable Bioenergy Research Consortium (SBRC) is piloting a unique desert ecosystem to produce SAF from plants that grow in the desert and are irrigated by coastal seawater. Etihad used the initial batch of fuel in January 2019 on a passenger flight from Abu Dhabi to Amsterdam.
The series of eight SAFI-UAE webinars (available for viewing here) hosted by Khalifa University and moderated by Dr Alejandro Rios, Director of SBRC, concludes on September 30 with a focus on establishing a SAF industry in the UAE through a work programme and stakeholder collaboration.
Boeing’s ecoDemonstrator programme takes promising technologies out of the lab and tests them in the air to accelerate innovation. This year’s programme evaluated four projects to reduce emissions and noise and enhance the safety and health of passengers and crew. It included a collaboration with Safran over the noise caused by airflow over the landing gear of aircraft. The partners have designed fairings around the landing gear to smooth out the turbulence to reduce noise levels by what Boeing describes as a significant amount.
Another project with NASA involved the investigation of how sound interacts with aircraft using special onboard acoustic sensors that detect small variations of sound while the aircraft is flying. The sound is then measured both on the aircraft and also on the ground using a thousand microphones in special patterns.
“This test is going to give us the best information on this aspect of aircraft noise that we’ve been able to achieve in flight,” said Russell Thomas, a senior research engineer at NASA Langley Research Center. “Out of that, we will be able to create what we think is a new avenue of noise reduction technologies and approaches. It really allows us to go one step further in developing new ideas and concepts for future aircraft that will be even quieter for the communities.”
Business aviation sector follows up sustainability commitment with SAF purchase agreements
Thu 24 Sept 2020 – Coinciding with the Virtual 2020 Business Aviation Sustainability Summit, four organisations from the sector – Gulfstream Aerospace, NetJets, VistaJet and Signature Flight Support – have announced purchase agreements with sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) suppliers. Opening the Summit, the first organised by a coalition of business aviation industry and fuel groups, NBAA President Ed Bolen said SAF represented an enormous breakthrough in tackling the sector’s environmental impact. Gulfstream said it was extending a SAF supply contract with World Fuel Services while VistaJet will secure availability for its customers globally of SAF sourced and delivered by SkyNRG. The fuel for both Gulfstream and VistaJet will be produced by World Energy. Neste has agreed to supply Signature and NetJets with SAF at San Francisco and London Luton airports. The Finnish renewable fuel producer has also just signed a SAF supply agreement with Shell Aviation.
The Gulfstream contract extension with World Fuel Services follows an agreement signed in 2015 – the first of its kind in business aviation, claims the aircraft manufacturer. Since March 2016, it has used 30/70 blended SAF for its Savannah-based fleet, which comprises corporate, demonstration, completion, customer support aircraft, on more than 650 flights covering 1.3 million nautical miles that saved around 1,700 tonnes of CO2.
The renewable fuel produced at World Energy’s refinery in Paramount, California, come from a feedstock of agricultural waste, fats and oils. The logistics are managed by World Fuel Services, which distributes the SAF to Gulfstream HQ and also makes it available for customers at its Van Nuys and Long Beach, California, service centres.
“This renewal marks another step in our ongoing commitment to promoting positive change in our industry,” said Gulfstream’s President, Mark Burns. “For almost a decade, we have leveraged our collaboration with World Energy to increase awareness and availability of SAF around the world. We look forward to continuing that work.”
In 2019, the company launched a service that allows operators to pay a usage-based annual fee towards activities that generate an equal reduction in carbon emissions, helping them to offset the carbon footprint of their flights. The offsets fund certified and verified projects covering wind energy, forest management, farm power and the recovery and utilisation of landfill gas.
Following the launch of its ‘Sustainability in Aviation’ programme in January, European private jet charter company VistaJet teamed with project developer South Pole to offer its members certified carbon credits to compensate for their fuel use related emissions. Since then, VistaJet reports 80% of members have opted in to the programme, with nearly 100,000 tonnes of CO2 offset so far. A further 21,500 tonnes emitted from intra-European flights were additionally covered by the EU ETS between January and August 2020.
The company has now announced a partnership with Amsterdam-based SkyNRG that will enable all VistaJet customers around the world access to SAF, which will be sourced from World Energy’s Paramount refinery.
“This will promote substantial reductions in aviation carbon emissions and increase stable demand and availability around the world,” said VistaJet. “Partnering with SkyNRG will offer our customers the most sustainable, cost-effective and scalable solution to decarbonise their flights, while helping to grow adoption across the entire industry.”
As part of its sustainability programme, VistaJet has introduced a number of additional measures to reduce its carbon footprint and improve sustainability, including investment in fuel consumption reduction technology, a fuel efficient booking system, sustainable in-flight products, moving to renewable electricity on the ground and partnering with carbon neutral companies wherever possible.
“VistaJet is committed to making aviation better. Today, this means changing the way we operate, to benefit not only our customers, but the whole global community. In this spirit, I hope our private aviation partners and peers will do the same, working collaboratively to bring change faster, as this is the only way for the fragmented industry to take full responsibility for the log-term health of the planet,” said VistaJet Chairman Thomas Flohr.
“In addition to adhering to market-based measures and improving existing infrastructure, enhancing operational procedures and developing new technological innovations is crucial. We are positive about the future and we believe together we can transform business aviation for the long-term good.”
Signature Flight Support, a fixed-base operator (FBO) offering support services to business and private aviation at 200 locations worldwide, has launched a company-wide global sustainability initiative called Signature Renew. Central to the programme is accelerating the use of SAF for private aircraft and the company is initially establishing permanent supplies of SAF at San Francisco International (SFO) and London Luton Airport. An agreement in principle has been reached with Neste to purchase 5 million gallons of Neste MY Renewable Jet Fuel, which Signature claims is the largest agreement to date by a FBO. Global private jet operator NetJets will be the launch customer for Signature Renew supplied SAF at SFO.
SAF gallons purchased via Signature SFO will take advantage of the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard tax incentive programme, said Signature, while Luton operators using SAF can reduce their obligations under the EU ETS. Once blended at a 35% ratio, Signature anticipates more than a 25% reduction in direct net lifecycle GHG emissions from aircraft using the SFO and Luton blends.
“Prior to establishing a permanent supply of SAF, FBOs have only been able to provide a few thousand gallons at one time – typically by request of an individual aircraft operator or for a one-off event,” explained Tony Lefebvre, Chief Operating Officer for Signature. “We are committed to having SAF available for uplift in San Francisco in the next few weeks, culminating in the world’s first 100% sustainably supplied FBO in Q1 2021. By having the first FBO in the world that is able to offer operators a reliable, full volume supply of SAF at a competitive price only a few dollars beyond traditional Jet A, we are providing the critical acceleration that industry trade groups and aviation regulators have cited as a necessary step on the path to widespread adoption.”
Under a non-exclusive agreement, NetJets has committed to purchase up to 3 million gallons of SAF at SFO, a large portion of Signature’s total volume at the airport, and all NetJets aircraft visiting SFO will be supplied with Neste’s fuel, uplifted by Signature.
“This first initiative helps to lay the groundwork for our sustainability programme, which aims to solidify our unwavering commitment to excellence,” said Brad Ferrell, NetJets’ EVP Administrative Services.
Chris Cooper, VP Renewable Aviation North America for Neste, added: “People who travel by private aircraft know there’s an environmental impact and many of them want a more sustainable option. In fact, a good number of people relying on private aviation are either working for companies with established climate goals or individuals who have personally committed to fighting climate change. This partnership means that passengers can look forward to being able to board a private aircraft fuelled by SAF and help fight – not contribute – to climate change in the near future.”
Neste said its new SAF supply agreement with Shell Aviation, which takes effect from October, would significantly increase the supply and availability of SAF for the aviation industry.
The Summit was organised by the Business Aviation Coalition for Sustainable Aviation Fuel, which has published the second edition of its SAF guide ‘Fueling the Future’. Recordings of the Summit sessions are available here.
Norwegian targets 45% improvement in carbon efficiency and to use 500 million litres of SAF by 2030
Wed 23 Sept 2020 – Low-cost carrier Norwegian has pledged to improve the carbon efficiency of its operations by reducing carbon emissions per passenger kilometre (pax/km) by 45% by 2030, compared to 2010 levels. Carbon emissions per pax/km have fallen by 28% from 2010 to 2019 and Norwegian will need a further reduction of 24% by 2030. The airline is aiming to achieve the target through fleet renewal and the use of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF). Depending on the level of fleet renewal, the airline is committing to utilising between 16 and 28 per cent of SAF by the end of the decade, equivalent of up to 500 million litres. Norwegian is also planning a 100% reduction of non-recyclable plastics and a 30% reduction and 100% recycling of single-use plastics by 2023. In efforts to improve accountability, the company will also integrate climate risk and environmental factors into corporate governance, risk management and annual reporting.
“Norwegian is a low-cost commercial business in a competitive market. We deliver affordable and quality flights to our customers. Over the next 3.5 years, the overall strategic goal is to use less natural resources and make more money,” writes CEO Jacob Schram in the introduction to the airline’s Environmental Sustainability Strategy report. “The overall goal rests on the principle that environmental actions must deliver a profit to be economically sustainable and operationally scalable.
“The low-cost model is the sustainability model in aviation as it enables highly efficient energy and resource management.”
The strategic objectives Norwegian says it will be focusing on are to make sustainability an integrated part of the business, achieve a best-in-class position among European carriers, “clean” the supply chain, take control of environmental social governance data and secure “predictable” regulations.
This will, it says, involve SAF procurement and using the airline’s purchasing power to ramp up production and involve suppliers in reaching SAF targets. Norwegian will also seek a regulatory framework that reduces investment uncertainty and rewards carbon efficiency. The price gap between conventional jet fuel and SAF should be closed by stimulating increased production through policy instruments, argues the airline, without introducing new market distortions. If introduced, blending mandates should be put on airlines and based on reduction targets to reduce market distortion effects, it adds.
“We encourage producers to ramp up production of sustainable aviation fuels. Norwegian will be actively engaging with producers to kick-start this vital contribution to the industry and take advantage of the emission savings that these fuels offer,” said Schram.
On the airline’s reduction targets on plastics, Head of Environmental Sustainability Anders Fagernæs said sustainable options were becoming a greater consideration by customers when choosing which airline to fly with.
“We will champion this attitude and become the customers’ sustainable choice by reducing and recycling plastic waste, promoting sustainable aviation fuel and continuing to fly one of the world’s youngest fleets,” he said.
The airline does not currently reveal annual fuel consumption or absolute carbon emissions data in its annual reports but, promises, Schram: “Our targets are action oriented and measurable. We will be open and share our progress actively. We commit to integrate climate risk and environmental factors into corporate governance, risk management and annual reporting.”
Norwegian claims to be the first to sign a UNFCCC pledge to become carbon neutral by 2050 and was found by ICCT to be the most fuel-efficient carrier on transatlantic routes in 2015 and 2018.
COMMENTARY: The Roadmap to True Zero: Targeting not only CO2 but aviation’s total environmental impact
Mon 28 Sept 2020 – Through the COVID crisis, it has been extremely heartening to see the aviation and aerospace sectors continue to focus on and, in some cases, redouble their commitment to decarbonisation, writes Nikhil Sachdeva of global strategy consulting firm Roland Berger. While decarbonisation is essential and must remain a priority, carbon dioxide (CO2) is not the only greenhouse gas released by aviation which contributes to global warming. There are many other pollutants and effects, from NOx to particulates, contrail cirrus and aviation induced cloudiness. Unfortunately, the non-carbon effects are less clearly understood than carbon and remain much more difficult to quantify. In effective radiative forcing terms, latest research suggests total impact of approximately three times that of carbon alone. In global warming potential terms, this ranges between two to four times, depending on the timeframe considered. Significant error bars complicate the issue further.
However, while scientific uncertainty remains over the exact quantum of non-CO2 effects, the practical reality is quite clear: both CO2 and non-CO2 effects contribute to warming and are extremely important to mitigate. For aviation to remove its total environmental footprint, the industry must work to tackle both carbon and non-carbon effects with equal emphasis and aim for a ‘True Zero’. If this holistic picture is not taken into account in making critical decisions in the coming few years, we may face the issue of having decarbonised, only to realise that we missed – or possibly exacerbated – the impact of non-carbon effects.
Despite the scale of the problem, there is unfortunately no ‘silver bullet’ or single solution which can conceivably address the whole challenge and achieve True Zero, while retaining and maintaining a functioning aviation ecosystem.
Three categories of solutions exist: novel sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) such as Power-to-Liquid eKerosene, aircraft electrical propulsion and hydrogen propulsion. While SAFs are a net-zero carbon solution, they do not sufficiently address other radiative forces. While parallel and series hybrids are a step in the right direction on all effects, only battery electric can completely remove them in operation but is technologically and commercially extremely difficult to deliver for large commercial aircraft. Hydrogen options are also indeed very promising but do not sufficiently address all warming effects: hydrogen fuel cells are a nearly True Zero solution but still produce large quantities of water vapour and potentially contrails, while hydrogen combustion, though technologically somewhat less complex, would also still produce NOx.
So how can aviation completely remove its environmental impact? We at Roland Berger propose the Roadmap to True Zero: a 5-step plan to minimise aviation’s annual environmental footprint by 2050.
First, airlines must continue on their existing path to keep improving their operations and keep switching to the latest aircraft. Second, we need continued investment into smoother air traffic control – but also, crucially, an investment into trajectory optimisation, which is essentially air traffic control for contrail minimisation. Third, the aerospace sector must invest heavily in not one but three categories of aircraft technology, broken down by flight mission requirement: battery-electric aircraft for the shortest flight segments, SAFs powering the longest flights performed by the largest aircraft, and hybrid-electric and/or hydrogen propulsion serving the all-important narrowbody segment. Fourth, and in parallel, the sector must keep investing in research to continuously improve climate science so we can keep refining our understanding of the problem and a strategy for the solution. Finally, for whatever emissions are remaining, we recommend compensating for the residual, for example, via rigorous certified offsetting.
The impact of these improvements can be best measured against aviation’s 2050 environmental footprint.
Airline operational improvement measures (such as aircraft weight reduction, best cruise speed adherence and continuous descent) and ATC improvements (such as the Single European Skies initiative) are estimated to be worth an estimated 10% of aviation’s 2050 footprint, driven by a 10% expected reduction in fuel burn.
The impact of replacing aircraft with the latest generation in their category (such as the A320neo, B737 MAX, B787 and A350) is significant. While airlines are currently in dire straits, the aviation sector will hopefully recover strongly in due course, and airlines should endeavour to transition to the best in class aircraft as soon as possible, with an environmental impact reduction worth around 25% by 2050. This relatively high impact is due to the sheer number of very inefficient classic generation aircraft still flying (for example, 35% of the pre-Covid US fleet was classic generation aircraft), and due to the significant reduction in soot and particulates (and thus partial reduction in contrails) afforded by the latest generation of engines.
Next is trajectory optimisation, wherein flights are redirected to minimise contrails, by flying lower and avoiding high risk pockets of air. While this can increase fuel burn slightly, the impact in contrail reduction can be significant, resulting in an estimated 15% reduction in total environmental impact, with no major aircraft or engine technology changes required.
Up to this point in the roadmap, significant impact is already possible – all without the inclusion of new aircraft technologies. However, any further improvement does require revolutionary aircraft platforms.
Battery electric aircraft are applicable to shorter ranges and smaller aircraft, up to 1,500 km, and since they remove fuel burn completely, they eliminate all emissions from the sectors they fly in (assuming batteries are charged with renewable energy), with an impact of around 15%.
In the narrowbody segment, up to 6,000 km, we anticipate both hybrid and hydrogen aircraft to play equally important roles. Given the scale of the narrowbody market, we expect a bifurcation in aircraft technology with aircraft manufacturers taking on different strategies – we therefore forecast this segment will be addressed by 50% hybrid and 50% hydrogen aircraft. Hybrids will burn not kerosene but SAFs (such as Power-to-Liquid eKerosene), which on a net basis can completely decarbonise. Hydrogen fuel cell aircraft will decarbonise completely in gross emissions but will increase water vapour emissions and not completely remove contrails. In total, the net impact of these aircraft is around 15%.
Finally, for the largest aircraft performing long-haul journeys, the only viable solution expected into 2050 is sustainable aviation fuels. These can decarbonise completely, albeit only on a net basis – with unfortunately minimal improvements in non-CO2 effects. Considering both net CO2 and non-CO2 effects, this is worth 10%.
This leaves approximately 10% of aviation’s total environmental footprint in 2050. This remainder is made up of mainly NOx and contrail effects – and, crucially, we have completely decarbonised. We recommend that the effects of these emissions are compensated in other ways, such as through rigorous and certified offsetting.
Our proposed Roadmap to True Zero is one of many paths that can be considered. Some improvements which are not covered in the roadmap include air traffic concepts such as formation flying, network concepts like replacing long-haul flights with connecting flights, and the impact of new carbon market incentives such as ‘carbon equivalent pricing’. These ideas could indeed be complementary but have not been considered in preference of focusing on technological changes while keeping the network and market structure constant.
In conclusion, we strongly believe that a combination of solutions does exist that can tackle aviation’s CO2 and non-CO2 impacts and pave the way to a genuine True Zero. Today’s focus is on decarbonisation, and while this must remain the priority, non-carbon effects cannot be ignored. However, there is no silver bullet or one-size-fits-all solution. The Roland Berger Roadmap to True Zero thus deploys a mixture of conventional and revolutionary technologies for range-specific missions, including electric, hydrogen and SAFs where they can have the greatest impact, and ‘low hanging fruit’ improvements such as trajectory optimisation. By applying the Roadmap to True Zero, aviation can completely decarbonise by 2050, and its total environmental footprint can be reduced by 90%, with just 10% remaining to be compensated through methods like offsetting to achieve True Zero.
To find out more about the Roadmap to True Zero and to discuss it further, contact the author at email@example.com or connect with Nikhil Sachdeva via LinkedIn. To read the latest analysis in electrical propulsion and other new aviation propulsion technologies, please visit the Roland Berger website, where you can also subscribe for regular updates.
Views expressed in Commentary op-ed articles do not necessarily represent those of GreenAir Online.